11.3 Energy Balance: Calories

11.3 Energy Balance: Calories


– WELCOME TO THE THIRD SECTION IN OUR SERIES ON ENERGY BALANCE
AND OBESITY. IN THIS SECTION, WHICH WILL
BE OUR LONGEST SECTION, I’M GOING TO COVER
THE CALORIES-IN AND CALORIES-OUT THEORY. AND I’M GOING TO START WITH,
WHAT IS A CALORIE? I COVERED THIS EARLIER
IN THE SEMESTER, BUT A CALORIE IS SIMPLY
A UNIT OF ENERGY. IT’S A UNIT OF FOOD ENERGY. SO WHEN WE LOOK AT A UNIT
OF MEASUREMENT, WE THINK OF ONE INCH
OR A FOOT OR A YARD. AND THAT’S BASICALLY JUST
A MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH. AND THE SAME THING WHEN WE LOOK, A CALORIE IS SIMPLY
A MEASUREMENT OF FOOD ENERGY. SO WE HAVE FOOD GOING
INTO OUR SYSTEM, AND FROM THAT WE WILL
GENERATE ENERGY. WE MEASURE
THAT ENERGY IN CALORIES. THE ENERGY BALANCE THEORY IS
SIMPLY LOOKING AT THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY FROM FOOD AND
BEVERAGES GOING INTO OUR SYSTEM, AND THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY
THAT WE EXPEND. AND THIS IS
THE THERMAL EFFECT OF FOOD, WHICH I’LL EXPLAIN IN A MINUTE,
BMR IS BASAL METABOLIC RATE, AND THEN OUR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. SO WHEN ENERGY IN AND
ENERGY OUT’S ARE EQUAL, OUR WEIGHT REMAINS STABLE. SO WHEN WE THINK OF
ENERGY IN AND ENERGY OUT, WE’RE THINKING OF CALORIES
IN AND CALORIES OUT. SO LOOKING AT THE CALORIES-OUT
SIDE OF THE EQUATION, THIS IS ENERGY EXPENDITURE. THE GREATEST PORTION COMES
FROM OUR BASAL METABOLIC RATE. NOW OUR BASAL METABOLIC RATE
IS ESSENTIALLY THE METABOLISM. OUR GENERAL METABOLISM IS
THE ENERGY EXPENDITURE NEEDED FOR ALL THE UNCONSCIOUS
ACTIVITIES THAT WE HAVE. WE HAVE TO BREATHE,
AND OUR HEART’S BEATING, WE HAVE TO MAKE
ENZYMES AND PROTEINS, WE ARE REGENERATING OUR TISSUES. SO ALL OF THOSE
FACTORS THAT HAPPEN, ALL OF THE PROCESSES IN OUR
BODY THAT HAPPEN THAT WE’RE NOT CONSCIOUSLY THINKING ABOUT,
THAT’S OUR BASAL METABOLIC RATE. AND THAT DETERMINES
A LARGE PORTION OF HOW MANY CALORIES
THAT WE BURN, OR ESSENTIALLY THE
ENERGY EXPENDITURE. AND THERE ARE MANY FACTORS THAT ACTUALLY AFFECT
BASAL METABOLIC RATE, BUT VERY FEW THAT
YOU CAN CONTROL. SO WE START WITH AGE. AS WE GET OLDER, USUALLY THE
BASAL METABOLIC RATE GOES DOWN. NOW PART OF THIS IS RELATED
TO A LOSS OF THE LEAN MASS, BECAUSE MORE MUSCLE,
WE’LL TALK ABOUT IN A MINUTE, IS GOING TO LEAD TO
MORE ENERGY EXPENDITURE. HEIGHT.
PEOPLE WHO ARE TALLER, AND ACTUALLY PEOPLE
WHO ARE LARGER, HAVE MORE SURFACE AREA. THAT MEANS MORE SURFACE
AREA ACTUALLY TO KEEP WARM, YOU’RE GOING TO BE
GENERATING MORE HEAT, INCREASING YOUR
ENERGY EXPENDITURE JUST BECAUSE YOU’RE TALLER.
GROWTH. WHETHER DURING
PREGNANCY OR CHILDHOOD, ANY TIME THERE IS
GROWTH HAPPENING, EVEN IF YOU ARE BUILDING
MUSCLE THROUGH WEIGHTLIFTING, THERE’S GOING TO GREATER
ENERGY EXPENDITURE BECAUSE THERE ARE MORE TISSUES
THAT NEED TO BE DEVELOPED. AS I WAS JUST REFERRING TO,
BODY COMPOSITION. SO THIS IS THE
AMOUNT OF LEAN MUSCLE MASS THAT IS
ACTUALLY CORRELATED. GREATER LEAN MUSCLE
MASS IS CORRELATED WITH GREATER ENERGY EXPENDITURE. THUS FOR EVERY POUND OF MUSCLE, IT ACTUALLY TAKES MORE ENERGY
JUST TO KEEP THAT MUSCLE GOING, DOING EVERYTHING IT NEEDS TO DO,
EVEN AT REST, COMPARED TO FAT. AND IT’S NOT
AS IF FAT JUST SITS THERE, IT ACTUALLY IS
METABOLICALLY ACTIVE, BUT NOT NEARLY AS
MUCH AS MUSCLE. SO THE MORE MUSCLE
YOU HAVE ON THE BODY, THE MORE CALORIES YOU
WILL BURN AT REST. FEVER, ANY SORT OF SICKNESS,
ILLNESS, FEVER, ACTUALLY INCREASES YOUR
BASAL METABOLIC RATE. STRESS WILL INCREASE BASAL
METABOLIC RATE AS WELL. TEMPERATURE. COLDER TEMPERATURES
ACTUALLY REQUIRE A GREATER BASAL METABOLIC
RATE BECAUSE WE USUALLY, IT’S CALLED SHIVERING
THERMOGENESIS, BUT YOU HAVE TO SHIVER, OR IT TAKES ENERGY TO MAKE YOU
SHIVER TO GENERATE MORE ENERGY. SO YOU’LL ACTUALLY BURN
MORE IN A COLDER CLIMATE. STARVATION AND
MALNUTRITION ACTUALLY DECREASE BASAL METABOLIC RATE. AND ISN’T IT INTERESTING? BECAUSE WHEN SOME PEOPLE
GO ON VERY RESTRICTED DIETS, ACTUALLY AS IF THE BODY
THINKS IT’S STARVING, IT’S GOING TO GO INTO
A FOOD-SCARCITY MODE, IT SLOWS EVERYTHING
DOWN, OKAY? I’M GOING TO DO JUST
WHAT I HAVE TO DO. SO THE BASAL METABOLIC
RATE GOES DOWN, AND IT ALMOST TRIES TO
MEET THAT CALORIE INTAKE. SO THAT’S ONE REASON
WHY SOMETIMES, EVEN IN A CALORIE-RESTRICTED DIET IN WHICH
YOU’LL LOSE WEIGHT, BUT YOU’RE NOT GOING TO LOSE
AS MUCH AS, SAY, IF YOU CALCULATED CALORIES-IN
VERSUS CALORIES-OUT. IF YOU WENT DOWN TO 600
OR 800 CALORIES YOU COULD LOSE A DRAMATIC AMOUNT OF
WEIGHT THAT INITIALLY YOU’RE BODY’S GOING TO SLOW DOWN
IT’S RATE TO HELP COMPENSATE. OF COURSE ANYTHING PROLONGED,
YOU KNOW, YOU PROBABLY WOULD
END UP LOSING WEIGHT. BUT YOUR BODY KNOWS
HOW TO COMPENSATE, IT KNEW HOW TO SURVIVE IN TIMES
OF FOOD SCARCITY IN THE PAST, AND SO IT STILL
FALLS BACK TO THAT. THYROXIN. SO THIS IS
THYROID HORMONE. THIS IS USED BY EVERY
CELL IN THE BODY, AND IT ACTUALLY WILL
INCREASE THE METABOLIC RATE. AND YOU’VE HEARD OF PEOPLE
WHO ARE HYPOTHYROID, SO THEY DON’T HAVE
ENOUGH THYROID, THEY’RE NOT SECRETING
ENOUGH THYROID, AND THEY ACTUALLY
HAVE TO TAKE THYROID. AND IF YOU’RE HYPOTHYROID
USUALLY YOU’RE A LITTLE BIT HEAVIER,
YOU’VE GAINED WEIGHT. BUT ONCE YOU
RECEIVE THE THYROID, THIS ACTUALLY SPEEDS
UP THE METABOLISM. AND THIS IS THROUGHOUT
ALL CELLS IN THE BODY. AND THEN ELEVATION. I THOUGHT I’D THROW THIS IN TOO, BUT THE HIGHER ELEVATION,
THE MORE ENERGY YOU EXPEND. JUST BEING AT THAT ELEVATION. AND THEN WE ALSO TALKED
ABOUT TEMPERATURE, TOO. SO REMEMBER THE CHARTS
THAT I SHOWED YOU EARLIER, HOW COLORADO IS ONE OF THE LAST STATES TO REALLY
DEVELOP OBESITY. EVEN THOUGH ITS OBESITY
RATES HAVE DOUBLED, IT’S STILL THE LOWEST IN
THE NATION, AND, I THINK, IT’S DENVER AND
BOULDER THAT HAVE THE TWO LOWEST OBESITY
RATES IN THE NATION. WELL, THEY HAVE COLDER
CLIMATES IN THE WINTERTIME, AND THEY’RE AT A
HIGHER ELEVATION. AND THAT IS THE PROPOSED
THEORY FOR WHY THE STATE HAS THE LOWEST
RATES OF OBESITY. SO THE THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD. WHAT EXACTLY IS THE
THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD? THIS IS THE ENERGY IT TAKES
FOR US TO BREAK DOWN OUR FOOD. SO REMEMBER, WE HAVE TO
DIGEST OUR FOOD. AND THEN THE FOOD
HAS TO BE ABSORBED. AND THEN IT’S
METABOLIZED IN ORDER FOR US TO UTILIZE IT AS ENERGY. AND EVEN THOUGH WE THINK ABOUT
ALL FOOD CONTRIBUTING CALORIES, AND I’LL GO OVER THIS A
LITTLE BIT IN A LITTLE BIT, BUT REMEMBER, NOT ALL
OF OUR MACRONUTRIENTS CONTRIBUTE EQUAL
AMOUNTS OF CALORIES. AND THEY ALSO ARE
METABOLIZED DIFFERENTLY. SO DIFFERENT FOOD
COMBINATIONS ARE ACTUALLY GOING TO PROVIDE A
DIFFERENT THERMIC EFFECT. MEANING, YOU MIGHT, DEPENDING ON
THE TYPES OF FOOD YOU EAT, YOU WILL BURN MORE
ENERGY BREAKING DOWN AND UTILIZING THOSE FOODS. LASTLY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. I DON’T NEED TO
COMMENT TOO MUCH HERE. BUT AS
FAR AS THIS CONTRIBUTING TO OUR OVERALL ENERGY EXPENDITURE, THIS IS THE ACTIVITIES OR THE
EXERCISES THAT WE CHOOSE TO DO. AND IF WE LOOK AT THE BREAKDOWN, YOU CAN SEE HOW OUR BMR,
OUR BASAL METABOLIC RATE, IS THE LARGEST
COMPONENT OF THIS. AND THIS IS THE ONE WE HAVE
THE LEAST CONTROL OVER. SO YOU MIGHT THINK,
WELL, THAT’S GENETICS, AND IT IS TO A CERTAIN EXTENT. YOU’RE BORN SHORT,
OR YOU’RE BORN TALL, THEN THAT’S PART OF IT. ALSO WE ALL AGE, AND WE HAVE DIFFERENT
CLIMATES THAT WE LIVE IN. BUT ONE ASPECT YOU
CAN CONTROL IS AN INDIRECT EFFECT FROM
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. SO THE MORE PHYSICALLY
ACTIVE YOU ARE, THE MORE LEAN MUSCLE
MASS YOU HAVE, AND THEREFORE THE
MORE YOU BURN AT REST, THE MORE ENERGY
YOU NEED AT REST, JUST TO KEEP THAT MUSCLE GOING. NOTICE THAT THERE’S A PRETTY
BIG RANGE FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. OBVIOUSLY, YOU MAY BE
A SEDENTARY PERSON, YOU MAY BE SITTING
IN FRONT OF A COMPUTER, AS I AM RIGHT NOW,
INSTEAD OF OUT MOUNTAIN BIKING, WHICH IS AN ACTIVITY THAT
I WOULD CHOOSE TO DO. OR MAYBE YOU PLAY
TENNIS OR YOU RUN. MAYBE YOU ARE A MAIL CARRIER
AND YOU GO DOOR-TO-DOOR, SO YOU COULD BE VERY
ACTIVE AT YOUR JOB. SO ALL OF THOSE THINGS WILL CONTRIBUTE TO OUR
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. WHICH IS ONLY A
PORTION OF OUR TOTAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE
OR ENERGY OUT. LASTLY, WE HAVE THE
THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD. REMEMBER, DIFFERENT FOODS
ARE GOING TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD
A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENTLY. AND WE’LL TALK ABOUT THIS LATER. I WANT TO TALK A LITTLE
BIT ABOUT THE CALORIES-IN, CALORIES-OUT THEORY. AND THE IDEA IS
THAT IF YOU TAKE IN FEWER CALORIES, OR ENERGY,
FROM BEVERAGES AND FOOD, AND YOU HAVE A GREATER ENERGY
EXPENDITURE FROM ACTIVITY, BASAL METABOLIC RATE AND
THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD, WE’RE NOT GOING TO
CHANGE THIS ONE HERE, BUT MAYBE ACTIVITY AND
THE TYPES OF FOOD YOU EAT, YOU’RE GOING TO LOSE WEIGHT. SO THAT’S OUR THEORY. IF YOU TAKE IN MORE ENERGY,
OR CALORIES, FROM FOOD AND BEVERAGES
THAN YOU BURN, OR YOU EXPEND, THEN YOU
WILL HAVE WEIGHT GAIN. AND THIS IDEA COMES FROM THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS,
WHICH IS: ENERGY CANNOT BE
CREATED OR DESTROYED, AND IT ONLY CAN CHANGE FORM. SO THE ENERGY THAT WE
GET FROM FOOD IS GOING BE UTILIZED IN OUR BODY,
OR WILL BE GIVEN OFF AS HEAT. SO WE HAVE THAT UTILIZATION,
WE’RE GOING TO USE IT FOR ACTIVITIES FOR OUR UNCONSCIOUS
ACTIVITIES TO DIGEST OUR FOODS, AND IF WE HAVE AN EQUAL
AMOUNT, EQUAL IN, EQUAL OUT, THEN WE
WON’T GAIN ANY WEIGHT. IF WE TAKE IN TOO MANY CALORIES
AND WE DON’T BURN AS MUCH, THEN, YOU KNOW, WE’RE GOING TO HAVE
WEIGHT GAIN AS IT SHOWS HERE. NOW THIS IS THE
TRADITIONAL WAY OF LOOKING AT WEIGHT
GAIN AND WEIGHT LOSS. NOW WHAT I WANT TO DO IS MAYBE POINT OUT SOME FLAWS
IN THIS THEORY. AND THIS IS BASED ON
SOME OF THE READING I’VE DONE FROM GARY TAUBES,
WHO WROTE “GOOD CALORIES, BAD CALORIES”,
AND “WHY WE GET FAT”. THE IDEA IS NOT THAT
THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS IS NOT TRUE,
BECAUSE IT IS. THE CALORIES IN SHOULD
EQUAL THE CALORIES OUT. BUT IT’S THE IDEA
OF CAUSE AND EFFECT. AND RIGHT NOW WE THINK ABOUT IT
AS IF THE CAUSE IS TAKING IN
TOO MANY CALORIES. OR THE CAUSE IS TOO
FEW CALORIES GOING OUT, SO YOU’RE NOT BURNING ENOUGH. AND THE EFFECT IS
GAINING WEIGHT, SO WE HAVE WEIGHT GAIN. SO WE HAVE, YOU EAT TOO MUCH, YOU EXERCISE TOO LITTLE,
YOU GAIN WEIGHT. NOW ESSENTIALLY THAT
MEANS YOU BECOME LARGER. THE IDEA IS THAT THE
CAUSE IS EATING TOO MUCH, THE EFFECT IS GAINING WEIGHT,
OR BECOMING LARGER. BUT LET ME ASK
YOU THIS QUESTION: DO CHILDREN GROW LARGER
BECAUSE THEY’RE EATING MORE? AND WHEN CHILDREN GROW,
THEY EAT MORE, RIGHT? AND WE KNOW THAT
ALL CHILDREN GROW. OR, ARE THEY EATING MORE
BECAUSE THEY’RE GROWING? AND WHY ARE THEY GROWING? ARE THEY EATING MORE
BECAUSE OF HORMONES? WELL, HORMONES ARE WHAT
MAKE CHILDREN GROW. AND CHILDREN ARE EATING MORE
BECAUSE THEY’RE GROWING, NOT VICE VERSA. OR THEY’RE NOT EATING MORE
AND THAT’S CAUSING THEM TO GROW. THEY’RE GROWING
BECAUSE OF HORMONES. SO IS IT POSSIBLE THAT PEOPLE
EAT MORE BECAUSE OF HORMONES? SO, IF YOU KIND OF
FLIP THIS AROUND AND THINK OF IT AS A HORMONAL
IMBALANCE AS THE CAUSE, THE EFFECT IS CONSUMING
TOO MUCH FOOD, AND THE RESULT IS
BECOMING LARGER. NOW THIS IS MORE OF A HORMONAL THEORY OF WEIGHT GAIN,
OR OBESITY. AND PRIOR TO WORLD
WAR II THIS ACTUALLY WAS A MORE COMMONLY
BELIEVED THEORY. NO ONE KNEW WHAT WAS
CAUSING WEIGHT GAIN. THE GERMANS ACTUALLY HAD
DONE A LOT OF RESEARCH THAT THOUGHT THAT MAYBE IT
WAS A HORMONAL IMBALANCE. THE IDEA OF THE FIRST
LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND CAUSE-AND-EFFECT
KIND OF TOOK HOLD TOO. SO THERE WERE TWO
COMPETING THEORIES. BUT AFTER THE WAR, NO ONE WANTED
ANYTHING TO DO WITH GERMANS, AND OF COURSE ALL OF THEIR
RESEARCH AND LABORATORIES WERE PROBABLY DESTROYED,
AND A LOT OF THAT GOT LOST. THAT THEORY GOT LOST. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS, THE IDEA THAT TAKING IN
TOO MANY CALORIES AND EXERCISING TOO LITTLE CAUSED
PEOPLE TO BECOME LARGER. AND THAT’S OUR MAIN THEORY NOW. AND, AGAIN, IT’S
NOT THAT THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
IS NOT TRUE. IT’S ALL ABOUT THE
CAUSE-AND-EFFECT. SO IF PEOPLE ARE
TAKING IN TOO MUCH FOOD, WE HAVE TO THINK ABOUT WHY. AND THAT’S WHAT I WANT
YOU TO THINK ABOUT. AND WE LOOK AT THIS. I’M GOING TO START
WITH WHAT I’VE BEEN TALKING ABOUT ALL SEMESTER. AND THAT IS THE IDEA THAT
REFINED CARBOHYDRATES, REMEMBER, THIS IS OUR CEREALS
AND GRAIN PRODUCTS AND PASTAS AND ALL THAT PROCESSED FOOD,
REFINED GRAINS, CAN CAUSE A HORMONAL IMBALANCE. AND I’M GOING TO REVIEW THIS
FROM OUR CARBOHYDRATE CHAPTER. REMEMBER THAT IF YOU TAKE IN
A REFINED CARBOHYDRATE, AND LET’S JUST SAY A BAGEL,
AND THIS IS OUR BLOOD GLUCOSE, THIS REPRESENTS
GLUCOSE RIGHT HERE, THAT WHEN YOU TAKE THAT IN, THAT IS A VERY HIGHLY
DIGESTIBLE STARCH, IT’S VERY EASY TO DIGEST,
AND BOOM, IT GETS ABSORBED AND
THE BLOOD SUGAR SPIKES. SO THIS IS ALL THE BLOOD SUGAR,
AND IT GOES UP. THE RESPONSE FROM THE PANCREAS
IS TO RELEASE INSULIN, AND IT’S GOING TO HAVE TO
RELEASE A LOT OF INSULIN. SO WE HAVE HIGH SUGAR, HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE,
AND HIGH INSULIN. NOW REMEMBER, THE ROLE OF
INSULIN IS TO BRING THAT GLUCOSE INTO THE MUSCLE,
THE FAT, AND THE LIVER. BUT WE HAVE INSULIN RESISTANCE. SO WHEN YOU REPEATEDLY DO THIS,
YOU REPEATEDLY HAVE A DIET WITH A HIGH AMOUNT OF
REFINED CARBOHYDRATES, THE INSULIN RESISTANCE DEVELOPS,
PARTICULARLY THE LIVER AND THE MUSCLES STOP
RECOGNIZING THAT INSULIN. SO THE INSULIN CANNOT TAKE THE
GLUCOSE OUT OF THE BLOODSTREAM. SO NOW IT GETS IN, WE HAVE A
REALLY HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE. AND REMEMBER,
I DESCRIBED IT AS LIKE THE LITTLE BOY WHO CRIED WOLF. AND IF YOU HAVE A LITTLE BOY
COMING AND KNOCKING ON YOUR DOOR AND THE FIRST TIME HE SCREAMS,
YOU GO, “OH, I’LL GO OUT AND
SEE WHAT HAPPENS”, AND THEN HE GIGGLES
AND RUNS AWAY. WELL, THE NEXT TIME HE DOES IT,
YOU’RE LESS ENTHUSED. AND BY THE THIRD TIME,
YOU DON’T EVEN ANSWER THE DOOR, AND BY THE FOURTH TIME YOU
DON’T EVEN HEAR HIM KNOCKING. WELL, YOU’VE BECOME RESISTANT,
YOU KNOW, TO THIS BOY WHO’S KNOCKING. IT’S THE SAME THING
WITH THE CELLS. IF INSULIN COMES KNOCKING
AND KEEPS COMING KNOCKING, LIKE, “HEY, HEY, HEY,
LET ME IN,” EVENTUALLY THE CELLS
ARE LIKE, “NO, I’M NOT GONNA
LISTEN TO YOU ANYMORE.” SO THE CELLS, PARTICULARLY
THE MUSCLE AND THE LIVER, NO LONGER REALLY HAVE A
RESPONSE TO THAT INSULIN. SO THERE’S A VERY
SLOW PROCESS OF THAT GLUCOSE BEING
MOVED OUT OF THE CELLS. IT’S VERY HARD TO GET
IT INTO THE MUSCLE. UNFORTUNATELY, IT DOES
PROMOTE FAT STORAGE. SO YOU END UP HAVING
MORE FAT STORAGE BECAUSE INSULIN
PROMOTES FAT STORAGE, YOU HAVE LESS GLUCOSE
IN THE MUSCLE. SO THE MUSCLE WANTS TO
HAVE ENERGY TO DO ACTIVITY, BUT IT DOESN’T. SO THAT INDIVIDUAL
WHO HAS INSULIN RESISTANCE DOES NOT
HAVE ENERGY TO EXERCISE. THEY’RE CONSUMING THIS FOOD
AND THEY’RE STORING IT AS FAT. SO, YOU KNOW, WE TRY TO
THINK OF THIS CALORIES-IN, CALORIES-OUT THEORY,
WELL, YEAH, THE CALORIES ARE GOING IN
AND THEY’RE GOING SOMEWHERE, BUT THEY’RE NOT
BEING UTILIZED FOR WHAT WE NEED THEM
TO BE UTILIZED FOR. AND WHAT HAPPENS IS, YOU END UP DRIVING
DOWN THE BLOOD SUGAR. SO THE MUSCLE DOESN’T
HAVE THE GLUCOSE, THE BLOOD SUGAR DROPS, OF COURSE WE’RE GOING TO,
YOU KNOW, STIMULATE HUNGER THIS
WAY [ INAUDIBLE ] HAVING A LOW BLOOD SUGAR,
AND STORE MORE FAT. SO, AGAIN, PEOPLE ARE EATING,
BUT THEY CAN’T UTILIZE THAT ENERGY TO DO THE THINGS
THAT THEY WANT TO DO. SO THIS IS WHERE THE
HORMONAL IMBALANCE COMES IN, DRIVING SOMEBODY TO EAT,
BUT NOT BEING ABLE TO UTILIZE THOSE NUTRIENTS FOR THE
ACTIVITIES THAT WE WANT. NOW I’M GOING TO GO TO FRUCTOSE. ‘CAUSE FRUCTOSE ACTUALLY
HAS AN INDEPENDENT EFFECT. NOW WE THINK OF REFINED
CARBOHYDRATES AND, OF COURSE, THAT’S ALL
OF OUR STARCH-BASED FOODS AND MOST OF
THE REFINED GRAINS, AND OUR PRODUCTS LIKE
OUR BREAKFAST CEREALS. AND FRUCTOSE, WHETHER
IT IS ADDED FROM ANY TYPE OF ADDED SUGAR,
WHETHER IT IS HONEY, WHETHER IT’S ORGANIC CANE SUGAR, OR HIGH-FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP,
JUST SUCROSE, ANY OF THOSE THINGS THAT
HAVE FRUCTOSE IN ‘EM, YOU’RE GOING TO GET A HUGE DOSE OF FRUCTOSE THAT
GOES TO THE LIVER. NOW WHAT’S INTERESTING
ABOUT FRUCTOSE IS THAT OUR BODY REALLY
DOESN’T NEED IT. WE NEED GLUCOSE, WE’RE JUST GETTING IT IN
WAY TOO HIGH OF DOSES, TOO QUICKLY, TOO SOON, AND THAT COSTS A
HORMONAL IMBALANCE. WITH FRUCTOSE, WE’RE
GETTING THESE LARGE DOSES OF FRUCTOSE FROM
THESE PROCESSED FOODS, AND THE CELLS
CAN’T USE FRUCTOSE. AT LEAST WITH GLUCOSE, EVERY CELL CAN USE
GLUCOSE FOR ENERGY, BEFORE INSULIN RESISTANCE. BUT WITH FRUCTOSE,
THE CELLS REALLY CAN’T USE IT. SO FRUCTOSE GOES
RIGHT TO THE LIVER. NOW THE LIVER GETS OVERLOADED
WITH THESE HIGH DOSES OF FRUCTOSE COMING FROM PROCESSED
FOODS WITH ADDED SUGAR. AND THE LIVER ENDS UP MAKING
FAT AND STORING FAT AND GETTING LOADED WITH FAT WITHIN THE
LIVER, PACKAGING IT UP, SENDING IT OUT AS FAT INTO
THE BLOODSTREAM AS WELL. AND THERE ARE A
FEW OTHER PROCESSES THAT HAPPEN SUCH AS
INCREASE IN URIC ACID AND DEPLETION OF THE
ENERGY IN THE LIVER. BUT IT HAS THIS
INDEPENDENT EFFECT THAT, MORE RESEARCH NEEDS TO BE DONE,
BUT COULD BE AN INDEPENDENT FACTOR FOR
CONTRIBUTING TO OBESITY. SO IT’S DEFINITELY
PART OF THIS PROCESS OF OBESITY AND CAUSING
HORMONAL IMBALANCES. I WANT YOU TO THINK OF
AS THESE HORMONAL IMBALANCES ACTUALLY END UP
DRIVING OUR BEHAVIOR. AND I FORGOT SOMETHING: FRUCTOSE CAUSES INSULIN
RESISTANCE IN THE LIVER. SO THAT’S WHAT
REALLY CONTRIBUTES TO THE HORMONAL IMBALANCE. NOW HORMONES REALLY
DRIVE BEHAVIOR. AND WE’RE GOING TO
GO OVER BEHAVIORS, AS FAR AS APPETITE
CONTROLS OF HUNGER, NEXT. BUT THESE HORMONES
DRIVE BEHAVIORS. FOR EXAMPLE, INSULIN WILL
ACTUALLY HELP CONTROL SATIETY. SO EVEN THOUGH WE HAVE
THESE HIGH DOSES OF INSULIN WHEN WE EAT, LET’S SAY,
A STARCH-BASED MEAL, AT LEAST INSULIN IS GOING TO
SIGNAL THE BRAIN AND SAY, “HEY! THERE’S FOOD! STOP EATING!” WITH FRUCTOSE,
WE DON’T GET THAT. BUT THESE DO DRIVE BEHAVIORS. AND WHEN YOU HAVE
THESE BEHAVIORS, IT’S GOING TO CAUSE A
FOOD-SEEKING BEHAVIOR TO CONSUME MORE FOOD,
USUALLY MORE OF THE BAD FOODS, THE REFINED CARBOHYDRATES, THE ADDED SUGARS,
ALL THE PROCESSED FOODS. AND THIS CONTRIBUTES TO
PEOPLE BECOMING LARGER. NOW THE NEXT THING
I WANT TO DISCUSS IS HOW A CALORIE
IS NOT A CALORIE. WE THINK ABOUT, YOU KNOW, IF WE LOOK AT FAT,
PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATE, THAT NO MATTER THE CALORIES THAT
WE GET ARE GOING TO BE THE SAME, AND A CALORIE IS A CALORIE,
IT ALL GOES INTO THE SAME BIN, BECAUSE IT’S JUST
A UNIT OF ENERGY. BUT WHAT HAPPENS
FROM THE CALORIE OF ENERGY YOU’RE CONSUMING, TO WHAT HAPPENS ONCE
IT GETS INTO THE BODY, IS VERY DIFFERENT. WHAT I WANT YOU TO KNOW IS THAT
A CALORIE IS NOT A CALORIE. AND REMEMBER THAT
BOTH CARBOHYDRATES AND PROTEINS PROVIDE
FOUR CALORIES PER GRAM, SO THAT’S WHEN THEY’RE GOING
INTO THE BODY THEY WOULD HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO GIVE
US 4 CALORIES OF ENERGY, WHEREAS FAT IS
ALMOST DOUBLE THAT, SO THAT WOULD BE NINE
CALORIES PER GRAM. AND THAT’S WHY, YOU KNOW,
ESPECIALLY BACK IN THE ’80s, IT WAS ALL THE LOW-FAT DIETS
WERE THE BIG FAD AND WE WANTED TO AVOID FAT ‘CAUSE WE
THOUGHT IT WAS SO ENERGY-DENSE. BUT WHEN YOU CONSUME
CARBOHYDRATES AND FAT, THE BODY IS VERY EFFICIENT AT
UTILIZING THESE FOR ENERGY. SO WE CAN BREAK DOWN
THE CARBOHYDRATES, BREAK DOWN THE FATS,
AND IF WE NEED ‘EM FOR ENERGY, IT’S VERY EASY TO DO THAT. PROTEIN, NOT SO MUCH. PROTEIN IS NOT AN
EFFICIENT SOURCE OF ENERGY. SO EVEN THOUGH IT MIGHT START
WITH FOUR CALORIES PER GRAM, MAYBE YOU’D GET THAT IN A LAB,
IT GETS INTO THE BODY, REMEMBER HOW COMPLEX PROTEIN IS? TO BREAK THAT DOWN? TO ACTUALLY BREAK IT INTO ITS
INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS TO GET THOSE TWO CARBON FRAGMENTS
AND TO MAKE THAT INTO ENERGY? THAT TAKES ENERGY TO DO THAT! SO THE NET EFFECT
OF GETTING ENERGY FROM PROTEIN ENDS
UP BEING VERY SMALL. SO WE’RE DEFINITELY NOT
GETTING FOUR CALORIES PER GRAM. AND THAT’S WHEN WE LOOK AT THIS
AS THE THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD. IF YOU’RE GOING TO EAT
MORE FOODS THAT ARE HIGHER IN PROTEIN CONTENT,
YOU’RE GOING TO SPEND MORE ENERGY DIGESTING AND
ABSORBING AND METABOLIZING AND UTILIZING THAT AS A
SOURCE OF ENERGY COMPARED TO A DIET OF HIGHLY REFINED
CARBOHYDRATES SUCH AS BREAD. AND ALSO, WE DON’T WANT TO
USE PROTEIN FOR ENERGY. REMEMBER ALL THOSE FUNCTIONS? WE’VE GOT SKIN TO MAKE, AND LIGAMENTS AND
TENDONS AND MUSCLES, AND ENZYMES AND ANTIBODIES, AND IT’S FOR BUFFERS
AND FLUID BALANCE. LOT OF THINGS PROTEIN CAN
DO BESIDES GIVE US ENERGY. AND WE ALL HAVE A NICE
LITTLE STORE OF FAT, THAT’S A GREAT SOURCE OF ENERGY. AND WITH CARBOHYDRATES, A VERY EASY AND EFFICIENT
SOURCE FOR ENERGY. SO THIS IS WHY A
CALORIE ISN’T A CALORIE. AND HOW YOU ACTUALLY
CAN INCREASE ENERGY EXPENDITURE BY CHANGING THE
COMPOSITION OF YOUR DIET. AND WE’LL TALK ABOUT
THE HORMONAL INFLUENCES OF THESE
FOODS IN A LITTLE BIT, BUT JUST AS
FAR AS HAVING MORE PROTEIN IN THE DIET COMPARED TO
REFINED CARBOHYDRATES. AND I KNOW WE WENT THROUGH
OUR PROTEIN CHAPTER AND I SAID YOU DON’T NEED
THAT MUCH PROTEIN. AND IT’S TRUE, YOU DEFINITELY
DON’T NEED THAT MUCH PROTEIN. BUT HAVING THAT
PROTEIN BASE WILL DEFINITELY INCREASE
ENERGY EXPENDITURE AS FAR AS THE THERMIC
EFFECT OF FOOD IS CONCERNED.  

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