The Plant-Based Diet

The Plant-Based Diet


KAITLIN HENNESSY:
Hello, everyone, and welcome to the
plant-based diet. My name is Kaitlin Hennessy. I’m the program coordinator
here at Global Connections. And our Global Connections
is to provide engaging co- and extracurricular
activities for Global Campus students, anybody having
an internet connection. And we’re delighted that
you joined us this evening. Presenting tonight’s
program will be Alice Ma. She’s a registered dietician
here at WSU Dining Services. And throughout the evening, as
many of you are already doing, please do use that chat
box to discuss content. You can submit questions
for Alice at any point. She will be breaking
for a formal Q&A a few times during
the presentation. But I’ll be sure to take
note of your question, no matter when you post it. And if you have any
technical difficulties, please do let me know, and
I’ll do my best to help you. I will be your event’s
moderator in the chat throughout the evening. OK. I’m going to turn it
over to Alice now. Thank you for coming. ALICE MA: Today, we’re going to
talk about a plant-based diet. I’m very excited, because
it’s my second webinar through the Global
Campus program. The first one I did
back in October, and this topic,
particularly, is something that I’m very passionate about. So I’m excited to share
that all with you. So just a little
bit about me first. My name’s Alice. I’m a registered dietician. So what that credential
means is that I’ve gone through an accredited
program, a master’s program, and completed a number
of internship hours, and as well as taking
the exam to become a registered dietician. So unlike the term nutritionist,
the term nutritionist doesn’t really have the same
regulation or requirements in this country. And so the preferred term
is registered dietician. I grew up in West Jordan,
Utah, close to Salt Lake City, so I ended up going to
the University of Utah for my undergrad,
and then a master’s in nutrition and dietetics. And then I spent about a year
over in central Washington, then moved over here in 2015. And I currently work
for dieting services here at WSU, as their dietician. And most of what I do revolves
around menu planning, recipe development, working with
students with special dietary needs. And one of the
biggest trends we’ve seen in the past couple
of years is the request for more plant-based options
in the dining centers, either from students who are
fully vegetarian or vegan, or students who generally
just want to eat less meat. And so this is a topic
I’m very familiar with. I personally have also
been plant-based– I call myself vegan– for about a little
over three years now. So this is a topic I love. So for just a little
overview of what I’m going to talk about today,
and share with you all today is, why plant based? So the whys and the whats,
the definition of plant based, and why many people
are going plant based, for a number of reasons. And then secondly, I’m going
to address some common myths and concerns when
it comes to getting enough nutrition on a
plant-based diet, specifically. The first question
you often hear when you tell people
you’re vegetarian or vegan, is how much protein you get. And then my favorite
part will be talking about cooking
techniques, and giving you a lot of recipe ideas and
references, and blogs, to find your own recipes
on how to replace protein, how to replace eggs and
milk, and still come up with delicious food at the end. And I’ve got a lot
of pictures that I’ve taken of the food I’ve eaten,
both in the dining centers, as well as food I’ve made at home. So lots of great pictures,
and then I’ll add, because there’s a lot
of things to cover, I’ll also bring in some
additional resources for nutrition
information, recipe blogs, and then we’ll do questions
to draw out, as well as have some time at
the end for questions. So let’s start with the
definition of plant-based diet. What does the word
plant based mean? And there really isn’t
a standard definition that I found online. It’s one of those things where
you interpret it on your own, based on what your
philosophy is, and what your definition
of a healthy diet is. I pulled a few
from the internet. Kaitlin, if you can, will
plug in the links for those. The first one is from a blog
called The Happy Herbivore, a great blog. I see some people
have read it before, but great blog for
recipes, as well as just general information
on going plant based. But a person, according
to her, a person following a plant-based diet
eats only plant foods, but you’ll see, in
parentheses, she also mentioned, or mostly plant food. So it’s not really necessarily
an all or nothing thing. It’s basically, most of
your diet is plant based, but maybe occasionally, you’ll
eat meat or dairy, maybe on vacation, maybe on holidays. It’s a little bit
flexible in that way. So it’s more of a
spectrum as opposed to a black and white thing. There’s definitely
some gray area there. The second definition, this
is a little bit more specific to the health aspect of it. It’s from The Huffington
Post, and they referred to it as a whole foods
plant-based diet, as opposed to just
a plant-based diet. One that’s based on
whole foods is just that. It’s based on foods that
are in their whole form, as opposed to foods that are
highly processed, or plant parts, and the
emphasis is on health, so eating whole
fruits and vegetables, lots of whole grains, staying
away from animal products. And they also put, again, in
parentheses, or minimizing. So again, there’s a gray area. It’s not a complete black
and white, all or nothing. There’s some really
good flexibility there. And then one
question I often get is whether the plant-based diet
is the same as being vegan, and in some cases, yes. In some cases, no. It really depends
on who you ask, and what their
personal philosophy is. With the term plant
based, it really applies to just diet
for the most part, so what you’re eating,
whereas veganism is really much more of a philosophy,
focused on animals. So someone who’s vegan may
follow a mostly plant-based diet, but they also maybe
will avoid buying leather. They may avoid
honey and gelatin. They may purchase special
shampoos or conditioners from companies that
don’t test on animals. And so it’s similar
to being vegan, but they’re not always
interchangeable in some ways. And this picture is
an example of that, illustrating that point. So this is a cinnamon
roll that I got back in Salt Lake City from a
vegan cinnamon roll place that just opened up
back home, and they used these cookies,
which are essentially vegan, because there’s
no animal products, but they’re definitely not
whole foods plant based because a lot of the ingredients
in there are synthetically made. So they’re not
necessarily healthy, but they are still vegan because
there are no animal products. And then lastly,
some people also use the term flexitarian
or reducetarian, that’s kind of the same idea as
plant based, but a little bit more flexibility there. So they may eat plant based
most days of the week, and have a little bit more
flexibility for restaurants, or on holidays. Another term that’s
used sometimes is called reducetarian. Same concept, plant
based, but not necessarily black and white,
fully vegan or vegetarian. So why are people plant
based or eating less meat? And there are a
number of benefits. and so there’s no right
or wrong reason to do it. It’s really, if you’re doing it,
you’ll see all these benefits. So first and foremost,
we use the term plant based because it’s
centered around health. And so with the health aspect
of it, generally speaking, a plant-based diet
is going to be higher in fiber because you’re most
likely eating a lot more fruits, vegetables, beans,
legumes, nuts, grains, and then also lower
in saturated fat, because a lot of the
saturated fat in our diet comes from meat. And so just by
eliminating meat, you’re eliminating a lot of
that saturated fat. And then lastly,
there’s no cholesterol in a 100% plant-based diet
because cholesterol only comes from animal products. So when you’re
completely plant based, you’re not consuming
any cholesterol at all. And then as far as
studies go, there are several studies
on plant-based diets and vegetarian/vegan diets, and
the health outcomes of those, and generally speaking, people
who are on a plant-based diet reduce their risk of diabetes,
heart disease, and high blood pressure, as well
as use this diet as a means to manage
those, if they already have these conditions existing. And the key thing
with this to remember is, people who are even
partially vegetarian or vegan or partially plant based, maybe
two or three days of the week, also see those same benefits. The benefits increase as
you go more plant based, but even if you are flexitarian
or plant based a couple of days of the week, you will see
some improvements there, according to this research. Secondly, we have
the environment. And so I won’t touch
too much on this, but this is really the
reason I became plant based. I’m more of a flexitarian
in the first place, about six years ago,
before becoming fully vegan about three years ago. And so there are a number of
reasons why being plant based– it’s a little bit better
for the environment. One is greenhouse gas emissions. So beef production,
especially, results in a high amount of
greenhouse gas, especially methane emission into
the air, as well as requires a lot of usage
of water and land, a lot of natural resources,
compared to beans, lentils, and other things like
that, that require much fewer resources, emit
very little greenhouse gas. And we do things like, we talk
about cutting showers shorter, or driving less,
using our bike more, and those things do
have a positive impact on our environment. But this impact is going
to come from our diet. Next is a pretty easy
one, our wallets. So some people eat less
meat just to save money, and that’s a very
simple way to do it. There are ways where,
if you purchase a lot of plant-based
cheese substitutes or meat substitutes, those can
cost a little bit more, but generally
speaking, if you’re buying things like beans,
lentils, peanut butter, and resorting to those things as
your primary source of protein, and plant-based substitutes,
because you can buy a lot of those in
bulk, and you’re eating more fruits
and vegetables and spending less money on
meat, you are, generally speaking, going to save some
money going plant based, even if it’s one day a
week, one dinner a week. And then lastly– I touched a little
bit on this before– for the animals, pretty simple
concept, eating less meat, the animals suffer less. All right, I’m going
to pause for a second, just to make sure
there are no questions before I go into
the nutrition piece. KAITLIN HENNESSY: Don’t have
any questions right now, Alice. ALICE MA: OK, all
right, no questions. So I’m going to dive
a into nutrition. There are a couple of
references that I’ll show you at the end, as well as
one, here at the beginning, about nutrition. So just as a
general overview, it is possible to get
all the nutrition you need on a fully plant-based
diet, as long as it’s carefully planned, and you’re
thinking about sources of protein and other things,
and really just relying on whole foods. So first, we have protein. So protein is important for– I think you most commonly hear
muscle building and beans, although protein also does serve
other functions in our bodies, but are mostly for
muscle building, especially as we are growing. In our teenager
stage, we’re still building up muscle, and then
maintenance as we get older. In our 30s or 40s, we do start
to lose a little bit of muscle every decade. And then as we get a
little bit older there, we do tend to lose a
little bit more muscle, and it becomes a little bit more
difficult to maintain muscle, if we’re not getting
enough protein. So as a general rule, the
requirement protein is roughly, it’s 0.4 to 0.5 grams of protein
per pound of body weight. So as a rough estimate, as a
quick and easy way to estimate it is, take your weight
and divide it by 2. And that would give
you an approximation of how much protein you need per
day in grams, keeping in mind that it does vary
slightly based on– men tend to require a
little more protein. If you’re a little
bit older, you may require a little bit more. If you’re a little bit more
active, a tiny bit more, but that’s a good
basis to start off of, as far as an estimation. And then protein foods,
we do get protein from a variety of foods. So first of all, the
foods that we consider a protein food would be soy,
beans, lentils, nuts, seeds, and the handout that Kaitlin
will link there in a minute includes a chart that lists
a number of protein sources that are plant based. And that website is
generally a good resource for a bunch of nutrition
information regarding plant-based diets. And I’ll show that website
at the end, as well. But we do have protein
from a number of foods, not just the foods you would
consider in the protein group, but also from whole grains. Things like oats and quinoa are
probably about 11 to 12 grams of protein per cup. And then we do also get
protein, in trace amounts, from certain vegetables,
so kale, spinach, potatoes, are also fairly high in
protein, for vegetables. And in some cases, you will
see meat and animal products do contain a little bit
more protein than some of these products, but
it doesn’t necessarily mean we’re not getting enough. If we’re eating
these products, it’s just that the average
American diet right now, which is centered on meat, includes
a little bit more protein than we actually need. So even though we may
get a little bit less on a plant-based diet,
it doesn’t necessarily mean we’re deficient. It’s just that diets
that are heavy on meats get more protein than they
need, which, it’s not necessary. Right. Next nutrients are
calcium and Vitamin D. So these are vital in
a number of functions, but mostly with bone
health, so preventing things like osteoporosis, reducing
our risk for hip fractures. And these vitamins and
minerals come into play because when we think of
calcium and Vitamin D, on a diet, the word that
comes up, that comes to mind, is generally dairy products. And so when we’re on
a plant-based diet, there’s no dairy involved,
but there are other ways to get your calcium and
Vitamin D. With both those, you will typically find
those in non-dairy milks because non-dairy milks are made
to be a replacement for dairy milk, and so they’ll fortify, or
add in, the calcium and Vitamin D. And it does vary
by brand, so make sure you check the
label on those to see, but most of your
recognizable brands will be fortified with
calcium and Vitamin D, as well as some other nutrients
I’ll mention later on. And then besides that, tofu
is a good source of calcium. Some tofu brands are also
fortified with Vitamin D. Leafy greens are a good
source of calcium, so your kales and your spinach
and your collard greens, molasses. I don’t use that too
much in my cooking, but that’s a good source. Orange juice is typically
fortified with calcium as well, because the Vitamin
C in the orange juice actually helps us absorb the
calcium a little bit better. And then some brands of
cereals, again, they’ll typically fortify
cereals with calcium and Vitamin D,
especially cereals that are served to kids. And then, on another
note, with Vitamin D, you won’t see it
on all these foods, but Vitamin D also
comes from sunlight. So if we’re getting enough
sunlight in the summer months, that gives us Vitamin
D. You can also find it in mushrooms, mushrooms that
are created with UV lights, as well as some
of these products, these fortified
products, which typically have vitamin D added to them. Next nutrient is iron. So iron plays an important role
in preventing– some of you may have heard the word anemia. So anemia is when we
have low iron levels, and that makes us feel
very fatigued and tired. And iron plays a role
in that because iron is what carries the
oxygen from our lungs, and it brings the oxygen to
our cells to be used and turned into energy. And so iron is very important. And we do get a lot
of it from our meats, and so when we’re
taking that out, you have to be a little bit
careful about getting enough of that to prevent anemia. But you do get it from a
variety of plant-based sources, so again, with the leafy
greens, the kale, the spinach. I talked about tofu; you may
find tohu fortified with iron, and also includes calcium. Beans and lentils are a
very good source of iron. Fortified cereals, again, they
add the iron to it, molasses, again. And then whole grains,
especially quinoa, have a fair amount of iron, as
well as nuts and dried fruits. So here we have pictured
just some chickpeas here, sugar on sweet
potato, and then here, this is a quinoa that
I made for one of my classes that I teach through
the local co-op. Quinoa is cooked in apple juice,
so it gives it some Vitamin C, and it’s sweeter,
and then there’s some dried fruit in there. So that’d be a good
overall sort of iron, that’s very absorbable because
the Vitamin C from the apple juice helps us absorb the
iron as well as the calcium. Last nutrient I’m going
to discuss, Vitamin B12. So this is a very
interesting vitamin, because it plays a vital
role in energy metabolism, as well as helping us form
DNA, and make red blood cells. And the hard part with this
is, Vitamin B12 is mostly found in our diets,
in animal products, and it’s very hard to find
them in plant-based products unless they’re fortified. So fortified foods, you’ll see– I’ll mention this
item later– but this is called nutritional yeast. And nutritional yeast is
an inactive form of yeast that you can find in,
typically if you have a store, you’re goign to be close to
a store with a bulk section, you’ll almost always
have nutritional yeast in either these smaller flakes
or some larger granules, or you may find it in either the
health foods organic section, in a shaker bottle,
or in the Bob’s Red Mill, if you’re familiar with
that brand, that little bag there. And what it is is, it tastes
very similar to cheese, and so people who are
on a plant-based diet will use it to replace cheese,
either just by sprinkling it on top of things, and adding
a little bit more flavor, or combining it with
other things like cashews to make cheese sauce, or
combining it with almonds and pulsing it, to make a
sort of a Parmesan cheese. Some people, even if
they’re not plant based, it’s pretty popular as
a topping on popcorn, so popcorn with some oil
and nutritional yeast to give it that cheesy flavor
without actually adding cheese. And that’s a very
good source of B12. And then other source
of B12 would be, again, your non-dairy milks. You’ll see some
that are fortified with B12 because
non-dairy milks are marketed at those people who
are plant based or dairy free, and can’t get the
B12 from elsewhere. So they will fortify
it because they know it can be a
replacement for milk. Again with cereals,
are fortified, and then any sort of plant-based or
vegan convenience products. So if you buy any of
the plant-based meats or frozen pizzas
that are plant based, those typically have
the B12 added, again, because they market it
to a specific plant-based population, so they
know that sources of B12 are kind of rare, and
so they’ll fortify those products with the B12. And this is the
one vitamin where, generally speaking, most
dieticians will recommend that you supplement
with it because, just to play on the safe side,
because B12 deficiency can get pretty serious, as far as
developing fatigue and anemia. And so just to be
on the safe side, it’s recommended that
supplementing, depending on the dosage you choose,
either once or twice a week, or a smaller dosage
every single day. And this is pretty simple to
do because supplements for B12 are generally a little
bit less expensive. And it’s also very hard to
overdose or overconsume B12 because it’s a
water-soluble vitamin. So any B12 that you don’t use,
it’ll go right through you and you’ll get rid of it. So there’s really no risk
of overdosing on B12. All right, we’ll take
another pause for questions. KAITLIN HENNESSY: Yes, we
do have a few questions. And I don’t think
that people will be able to hear me very well,
so if you can repeat them, that would really help. The first one asks about
do you deal with hunger after eating plant-based
meals and still being hungry after
you’re done eating? ALICE MA: Yeah. So that’s one of those
things where it depends a lot on what you’re eating. It’s really just a matter
of eating enough protein at the meal. So make sure you’re including
some of those protein sources we talked about, beans,
lentils, nuts, whole grains, and making sure you’re
combining those together. So we talked about
protein earlier, and if you look at the handout
that we referenced earlier, it talks about
complete proteins. So combining different
sources of protein so that you get all the
essential amino acids that make a complete
protein, and then also just eating in volume. And then the tough part
with being plant based is that initially, you do have
to find that you are hungry, which at least
from my experience, it’s really just a matter of– sorry, can you guys hear me? OK. So right, so hunger
pains, sometimes it’s a matter of getting used to
eating more or eating more often, and then getting used
to adding protein sources, and making sure you get those
protein sources at each meal. KAITLIN HENNESSY:
The next question on, if you can repeat
it, I’m hypoglycemic, and find that I don’t feel
the same on all plant based. I’ve tried proteins and I
find that doesn’t adequately fill me because I love sugar. Any other advice? ALICE MA: All right,
so question was, if you’re hypoglycemic
on a plant-based diet, finding yourself not beiing able
to sustain the energy, that’s probably more of a
question for a doctor because I’m not really
sure the reasoning behind the hypoglycemia,
but with most people who are hypoglycemic, it helps
really to eat more often. So having more snacks available
to prevent that blood sugar from going back down, and
really, back to the protein issue, getting enough
protein at those meals to keep you fuller, longer,
and as well as more fiber to keep you fuller, longer. KAITLIN HENNESSY:
Thank you Alice. And the next question asks, is
there any non-dairy milk brand you would suggest? ALICE MA: Yes. So I’m pretty particular
with my non-dairy milk. My favorite brand is
absolutely going to be Silk. Sorry. The question was, the
non-dairy milk, which non-dairy milk I would
suggest, but yeah, Silk brand is my favorite,
and they carry soy milk. They carry almond milk. I think they also do
cashew milk and coconut milk, in a variety of
flavors, and they do also have, in some sizes, a
no-sugar-added version, so if you’re looking for
something that’s unsweetened. But they do also have
vanilla and chocolate. That’s my favorite brand. Some people also like– I think the other
popular brand is So Delicious, which I’m not a fan
of, but some people do like. There’s also one newer
brand called Good Karma, and that is a flax-based milk. So if you have allergies
to soy or almond and those other typical
plant-based milk, they do also have flaxseed
milk available as the newcomer brand. And that’s allergen friendly,
and all those brands also make things like non-dairy
yogurt, and some of them also make non-dairy ice
cream and coffee creamer. So there’s a variety of products
out there to replace dairy. KAITLIN HENNESSY: That’s all
the questions we have right now. Thank you, Alice. ALICE MA: All right. So this is the fun part. This is my favorite part
of the presentation, is where I show you the food
and talk about how I made it, and different ways to replace
things like milk and eggs and protein when we’re cooking. With protein, I talked
about protein before, and there are a
number of foods we can use to replace meat and
other sources of protein. One of them, I list
first beans and lentils. And I list that because it’s
an allergen-friendly way to replace protein if
you’re allergic to any of the other ones, so nuts
or wheats or soy/tofu. Beans and lentils are
very allergen friendly. And here on this
bottom left picture, this is the recipe that
Kaitlin will link here. It’s a cranberry
bean meatball, and I tried this– what was
this, about two weeks ago– and it’s probably
the meatiest, I would say, meatball
that I’ve tried to make. So it’s made of black beans, and
then to give it more texture, it’s mixed with oats, and
then a little bit of flaxseed, or you can use nuts. And then to flavor it, there’s
cranberry sauce and then barbecue sauce over it,
and also some Liquid Smoke, to give it a little
bit of smoky flavor. So it’s probably one of
my favorite recipes now. And it’s very simple. It takes about 20 to 25 minutes
to bake, and very inexpensive too, so a great
plant-based recipe. I’ve also used beans and lentils
to make meat loaf so something like this over here. I usually make a
garbanzo bean loaf, so using chickpeas or garbanzo
beans mixed with brown rice or oats, and then
tomato sauce, and then baked just like a
meat loaf You can do the same thing with lentils,
and also use these beans for– I use them to make
dessert sometimes. So I puree them to
make cookie dough. I’ve done a number
of things with beans and lentils in countless amount. So they’re a very
good protein source to used in a variety of things. And secondly would be nuts, so
nuts, obviously not appropriate for those with allergies, but
nuts are used sometimes, as simple as peanut
butter sandwiches, or if you want to
get creative, nuts can be used to make pie crusts,
so mixing nuts with dates. Mix a date into raw pie crust,
or I’ve also seen things online that it’s like a taco meat,
but instead of using meat, they use walnuts, so walnuts
mixed with a number of spices, and pulsed just barely so
it resembles taco meat. So it’s not pureed, or
like a walnut butter, but it’s almost crumbly
like taco meat would be. And then seitan, which is a
wheat-based meat substitute, and that can be purchased
as a convenience product, or you can buy something
called vital wheat gluten in the bulk
section, and that’s what I used to make these
ribs here, the barbeque ribs, and I used vital wheat gluten. And then I think with
some vegetable broth, and then onion powder, garlic
powder, and then Liquid Smoke, and then barbecue
sauce, just like you would with barbeque ribs. And the texture is
very similar to what I remember barbeque ribs to be. And then tempeh is
a soy-based product. You can get it as granules to
use to make like Sloppy Joe. That’s what we do
on campus here. Or you can get them as strips. They sell tempeh bacon,
and they sell tempeh strips that you can marinate
just like you would meat. And then tofu, similarly, you
can buy tofu and marinate it, just like you would
meat, and grill it, just like you would meat,
or bake it, make it crispy. There are a variety of things– I’ll mention tofu a little bit
later on– as an egg substitute too, but tofu can be
used in a number of ways. And then lastly, whole grains. So whole grains can be
used as a substitute because they do contain protein. In this picture here,
on the top right, this is something
we use on campus. So it’s a quinoa, again, taco
meat, quote unquote “meat.” All we do is cook the
quinoa, and I season it just like taco meat,
and it resembles almost like the texture of
ground beef, because it’s very fine and granulated. All right. So next, we have
milk and cheese. And this is probably, personally
for me, the easiest one to give up because I’ve been
lactose intolerant pretty much since I was
18, or at least I knew I was lactose
intolerant since I was 18. For some, milk and cheese
is very hard to give up. For milk, their substitution
is pretty simple. We mentioned non-dairy
milks earlier. So there are a variety of those
available, soy, nut, flax, hemp, coconut, rice,
oat, quite a few, depending on what
your preferences are. And if you have any allergies,
I personally like soy milk. It’s a little bit
higher in protein than most other
non-dairy milks, so I do prefer it with the taste
and with the extra protein. But I also like nut milk. And again, be aware of added
sugar with some of these because some brands, the
only variety available is a sweetened variety. Things like rice and oat milk
tend to be highly sweetened, and don’t have a lot
of nutrition in them, and protein in them. But soy, I like, flax and
nuts, I like a lot as well. And it’s just a
one-to-one replacement. So when you’re baking, or
making oatmeal or cereal, a simple swap, milk
for non-dairy milk, when you’re cooking or baking. And then nutritional yeast,
we discussed earlier. So as a replacement for cheese,
you can replace it just as a sprinkling on things, on pasta,
or combining it with cashews. I didn’t link this recipe,
but if you want it, I can definitely send it to
you or show it to you later. This is a cashew-based cheese
from one of my favorite blogs that I’ll reference later on. That’s just cashews
that are soaked, and then blended
together to make creamy, and then adding nutritional
yeast to give it that cheesy color and taste. But if you are allergic
to nuts, another recipe for cheese that can be
used to make mac and cheese is this other one that I
have a link for coming up. It’s a cheese sauce, but the
basis is allergen friendly. So it’s potatoes
and carrots that are boiled and then blended
together to become creamy. And then after that,
nutritional yeast is added. And then, I think this
one has garlic powder, probably a little
bit of turmeric you’ll see in some recipes. Blend it together
and then add it to cooked macaroni to make
a cheesy mac and cheese. And it’s not quite as creamy
as the cashew cheese would, because cashew adds a
lot of fatty texture, but it is still a pretty good
basis for a cheese sauce. It’s just potatoes and carrots. And that recipe should
be in this list of links for the sweet potato– or for
the potato and carrot cheese sauce. Great. And then, as far
as the hardest– probably, the one that was
hardest for me to give up was eggs. So with eggs, there are a
number of things you could do. One would be using– if you’re talking about eggs
that we use for breakfast, like scrambled eggs,
one would be using tofu. And my favorite– I think, if I
had to pick my favorite recipe blog– is this one coming up. It’s called Minimalist Baker. And I have a link
in the handout. That’s a scrambled tofu recipe,
so it’s a southwest tofu scramble. And it uses tofu
that’s just broken up. And then, they add
nutritional yeast, add a little bit of turmeric. And then, because
tofu is very bland and it absorbs
flavors pretty well, you can add whatever
spices you want to give it a little bit more flavor. And then, it’s just broken up
into pieces so resembles almost like a scrambled egg texture. So that’s a good replacer for
some people for scrambled eggs and for breakfast. You could also use
silken tofu, which is a different type of tofu. It just has more water in it
and so it’s a little bit softer. And this isn’t the
best picture, but it’s a quiche I made using silken
tofu as just the base. And there’s a recipe in the
links, as well, for this one. And the crust here, I
think was potatoes– just potatoes and
some vegan butter. And then, the last
one I recommend for people who are allergic
to soy is chickpea flour. So chickpea flour, it
can be a little bit hard to come by in some areas. I find it in the bulk section
at the co-op I live next to. But you can also
find it typically, either in a health food
section, or if there’s an organic section, or a whole
foods section in your store. Bob’s Red Mill is another
brand– a pretty popular brand– that they sell it
in their little tiny bags. And you can find it, probably,
next to all of the specialty fours if you have a section
like that in your grocery store or you could get it online. And you can also find it if
you have an Indian grocery store where you live. It’s also called
besan, so B-E-S-A-N. So you see that in an
Indian grocery store, that the same as chickpea flour. And it can be used– there’s a link in
the handout that uses chickpea flour to
make these frittatas here, or there’s another link that
uses them to make omelets. So it’s just the chickpea
flour, and water, and I think nutritional
yeast in there to give it some cheesy flavor. And then, it looks just like an
omelet when you put it in a pan and cook it. And if you want to add a little
bit more extra eggy flavor, there is something
called black salt that you can find,
again, in Indian grocery stores or online. It’s either called black salt
or the Indian name for is– I’m probably going
to butcher this but– kala namak. So it’s K-A-L-A– I think it’s M-A-L-A-K,
but it’s black salt. And you would replace any sort
of salt in the recipe with just this black salt. And it adds the
sulfuric taste that eggs have and it makes it taste
exactly like eggs. All right, my personal favorite
section is the dessert section. And you can approach
this one or two ways. So one approach would be to
take a recipe that you already have that you like and
replace the milk, and eggs, and the non-plant-based
items ingredients with some sort of substitute. And one of the handouts
that I included as part of this
presentation includes a list that I put together
of typical substitutes that you can use for
butter, and milk, and eggs. And I posted something in
this PowerPoint slide here. But for butter, you can use– usually when baking,
replace butter with oil. Unless it’s
something that really requires a fatty,
solid butter taste, oil works for the most case. My favorite replacement
with chocolate recipes is to use an equal
volume of mashed avocado, because avocado is solid
at room temperature, just like butter is. And it typically only works
well with chocolate recipes because the chocolate will
mask the color of the avocado as well as the taste. But 1:1 ratio– 1 cup of
butter is the same as 1 cup of mashed avocado. And you use it
just like you would butter in your baking recipe. In this recipe here– this is
something I made up on my own– I took a recipe online that
wasn’t plant-based to begin with– it called for butter– and all I did was
take out the butter and I replaced it
with mashed avocado. And this is a no-bake recipe,
so it’s a fudge recipe. It’s just avocado, cocoa
powder, and peanut butter, and then maple syrup. And then, I threw some
peanuts on top for garnish. So very simple no-bake
vegan fudge recipe. Applesauce also
works pretty well as a butter replacement
in baked goods. But it is a liquid,
so it only works well in things that are baked. Not so well in things that would
be no-bake, like this fudge. And then, milk– pretty simple. If you have a recipe
that calls for milk, simply switching
for nondairy milk– any variety. I haven’t really
found that there’s a difference between
nondairy milks when you’re using
them in baked goods. And because of volume that’s
called for is typically like a cup, it doesn’t
really make a difference, nutritionally, to use
any sort of focus, specifically, on one type. It’s whatever you have on hand. And then, eggs–
there are a number of things to use eggs
for, or replace eggs with. The one I probably use the
most is using flaxseeds. So taking ground flaxseeds–
so one tablespoon of the ground flaxseed, throwing it in
3 tablespoons of water, and then allowing that
mixture to sit and gel for about 10 minutes. And you can use with
chia seeds as well. That seeds will
absorb the liquid and it will form a
almost gel-like substance after about 10 minutes. And that can be used to
replace egg in any recipe. So that equals 1 egg. And then, something
that’s very popular in the plant-based community now
is something called aquafaba. So aquafaba is literally
translated, aqua meaning water and then faba meaning bean. So it’s bean water. And aquafaba is– you
can either get it from– if you cook chickpeas or
garbanzo beans from dried and have that cooking liquid
left over, that’s aquafaba. Or if you buy the
canned version of beans, you can save that liquid
that you typically would drain out and toss, and
use that– and that’s aquafaba. And so a tablespoon of that
can replace an egg in a recipe. So it’s just throwing
it in to replace the egg and mixing as usual. And it mimics the
same– because there’s a trace amount of
protein in aquafaba, it has the same
texture as an egg and it preforms the
same binding function as an egg would in
the baking recipe. And then, little
sidenote about aquafaba– because it’s big now, there
are a number of cookbooks out there– there are
about, probably, three– that are solely based on
recipes that use aquafaba. So definitely look
those up on Amazon. You can also use
aquafaba to whip. So if you whip it up with a
little bit cream of tartar and maple syrup, it makes
almost like a marshmallow fluff. Or you could use that same
fluff to use as a frosting. Or you could even bake
that fluff into meringues. Although it takes
about two hours, it is possible to turn
that into meringues. And that’s all it is–
chickpea liquid, no egg whites, and sweetener
for the most part. So that’s kind of
the 1:1 replacement. You can also just
look up recipes that already call for vegan
plant-based ingredients. And that’s another
route to do it. But I like to replace stuff
in recipes I already have and see what happens
and experiment. Then with ice cream,
I’d say vegan ice cream is really hard to
make on your own. You can make it with coconut
milk, cashew milk, rice milk, soy milk, but it does often
require an ice cream maker. For an easy, no-fuss ice
cream, I like to use bananas. So they call it
banana nice cream because it’s a nicer
version of ice cream that is a lot healthier
than your typical ice creams, either dairy
or nondairy ice creams. And there’s a link
to the recipe– a number of recipes– in the handout there from one
of my favorite dessert blogs called Chocolate Covered Katie. She focuses mostly on
desserts, but she does have some savory things as well. But banana nice cream is bananas
that are just sliced up– so peeled and sliced. And then, the banana slices
are frozen on a cookie sheet. And then, after the
bananas are frozen, they’re blended in
a food processor. Just pulse slightly,
not quite blended so it’s pureed, but blended just
so it’s creamy and not liquidy. And then, you can blend
that with whatever you have to flavor it. I did cocoa powder
in this picture to make a chocolate ice cream. I’ve also done it with
avocado to make it creamier. And then, I’ve added a
little bit of spinach to make it greener. And then, I added
peppermint extract make it like a mint chocolate
banana nice cream. And you can eat it
right after you make it. It’s more of a soft serve. Or if you refreeze it,
it’ll become pretty hard. It does harden pretty quickly. And so, if you end up freezing
overnight after making it, it will take a
little bit of time to thaw out to be soft
enough to eat because it does freeze pretty hard. And then, you can also buy– again, I mentioned some
of the brands earlier. Silk and So Delicious, they both
make plant-based ice creams, usually made out of soy, and
cashew milk, and coconut milk. You can also find
rice milk ice cream, but that’s not my favorite. It doesn’t taste as great. Depending on where
you live, there is also a brand called
Nadamoo that I like a lot. It’s coconut milk
makes ice cream there’s also one called Cado– C-A-D-O. It’s an
avocado-based ice cream, although they don’t sell in my
area, so I haven’t tried it. If you live closer
to the East Coast, you may be able to find it. And then lastly, here, we have
a cashew-based cheesecake. So there’s a recipe for
this from the same blog– Chocolate Covered
Katie– in the handout. I wish I could say I made this,
but this is actually from– so about a month ago–
exactly a month ago, actually– was my birthday. And so, our dieting
services admin professional made me this
cashew-based cheesecake instead of a regular
cake for my birthday. And it’s just soaked cashews. So you can buy
vegan cream cheese, but it’s kind of expensive. So the inexpensive way to do
it would be to take cashews, soak them to make them soft. And then, it’s blended
together with maple syrup– sometimes, coconut
oil or coconut cream to give it more of
a solid texture– and then, whatever
flavorings– you know, berries. And that’s put on, usually,
a raw pie crust that’s made of almonds and dates. And then, if you want it
more solid, freeze that and it tastes just
like cheesecake. There is also– I forgot to mention– lemon juice in this or
sometimes apple cider vinegar. And that gives it
that tart taste that a cheesecake usually has. And then, I talked a little
bit about these earlier, but if you’re not
really into cooking– I know not everyone cooks and
not everyone likes to cook, so there are a number
of store-bought items to help you transition
into going plant-based. For meats, I talked
a little about– so Gardein is the brand we
use in the dining centers. This is a Korean beef. And all we do is usually,
replace the exact same recipe we have with meat,
take out the meat, and replace it with the
same Gardein product. So they sell chicken breast. They sell beef-less
strips, fish fillets. I think they also do
nuggets, a variety of things, burgers as well. This brand down here is
an up-and-coming brand called Beyond Meat. So they have this something
called the Beyond Burger, which is a plant-based burger patty. But the idea was to mimic meat
as close as possible, which isn’t for everyone
because some people are plant-based because they
don’t like the taste of meat. But if you are plant-based, and
you do miss the taste of meat, this is something I
recommend trying out because it does taste just
like what I remember meat is. And there’s also no
allergens in this brand, so it’s made of pea protein. So no soy or wheat
like Gardein, so it’s allergen friendly, which
is nice for some people. Dairy-free ice cream,
we talked about. There’s a variety
of brands of those. Dairy-free cheeses– we
use a brand called Daiya at one of our pizza stations. The taste– why
people like it a lot. And also, pretty
allergen friendly. It’s not a nut base. It’s coconut oil based. And then, frozen pizzas,
convenience meals– a lot of similar brands. You can buy vegan eggs, too. There’s a brand called
Follow Your Heart that sells a vegan egg. Also, there’s a brand
called Ener-G. So Ener-G, without the Y– E-N-E-R dash G– egg
replacer for baking. You can buy
plant-based butters– Earth Balance or Smart Balance. And then, a variety of cookies,
cake mixes, other sweet treats, so you don’t have to
bake from scratch. The one caution with
this would be costs. So even though
being plant-based, generally speaking, is
a lot less expensive, if you are relying on a
number of these faux meats or faux cheese substitutes,
it can get pretty expensive. And some of these are also
pretty high in sodium– like faux meats–
so be aware of that. But it is a good way
to try new things. And if you’re missing
certain things in your diet, like meats and
cheeses, it is fun to try out some of these
things occasionally. So lastly, just to
get started, if you’re fairly new to this
idea of plant-based, it may be helpful instead
of going all at once, to make small changes at a time. So maybe, going
meatless once a week. Some people will participate
in Meatless Mondays. Or being more of a flexitarian
where you’re not eating meat. Let’s say, maybe you
don’t eat meat at home, but when you go out to
restaurants, you’ll eat meat. Something we do in the dining
centers is Less Meat Mondays. So on Mondays, all
the burgers we serve are a blended burger that’s
made with 25% mushrooms and 75% beef. So it’s not a vegetarian
burger by any means, but it’s a little
bit of less meat. And so, it makes a
little bit of impact as far as our
environmental impact. And then also, it adds a bit
more nutrition to the burger. So small things like that. And there are a number
of resources out there. I went to a variety of
blogs in those past links. But these four resources
are some of the best, as far as reputable resources that come
from peer-reviewed research. If you’re looking for
specific research on nutrition and plant-based diets, this will
give you pretty much everything you need. The Vegetarian
Resource Group includes things like meal plans,
and sample meal plans, and list of items that
have protein in them, list of foods that
have calcium in them, a list of food additives that
may have animals in them, books, and recipes. And then, the next one is
this Dietitian Practice Group. So this is a subgroup of the
Professional Organization of Dietitians that’s focused
on vegetarian nutrition. And they address a lot
of the common myths. And they have a variety
of consumer handouts that address, you
know, can I get enough protein on
a plant-based diet, should I feed my
child plant-based, how do I get enough iron
on a plant-based diet, or if I’m pregnant
and I’m plant-based, can I still do that? A variety of those frequently
asked questions when you’re going plant-based and
going through different life stages– they’ve got a handout
for many of those. And then, two dietitians
that are very famous and specifically focused on
plant-based eating are The Vegan RD– The Vegan Registered
Dietitian– and then, The Plant-Powered Dietitian. And both of these
dietitians, typically, will write blogs on hot
topics in plant-based eating or dispelling myths
and addressing common concerns on plant-based eating. And so that leaves
me with a couple of minutes for questions. My email is there, as
well as my Twitter, which I’m not super
active on, but I’ll tweet every now and then. If you have any
additional questions, or want recipes that I had
referenced to and maybe didn’t include links for, or
other ideas for eating out, or eating plant-based
in general– any other additional questions? I saw a couple. I didn’t quite read
through them all. KAITLIN HENNESSY: Yes. So one question is do
non-dairy yogurts still have good bacteria? ALICE MA: Yes, so most
brands of non-dairy yogurts, because of the way
they’re made, will still include those probiotics because
they can typically source those from an animal-free source. So the one brand
that comes to mind would be the Silk brand
that I recently looked at, and they include probiotics
in most of their yogurts. KAITLIN HENNESSY: Thank you. Our next question asks, can you
cover anti-nutrients and how to better absorb minerals? ALICE MA: Yes, so
anti-nutrients are– at least, from what I’m
understanding from the question and how they prevent
mineral absorption– are they’re called– they go under the name
phytates sometimes. And so, let’s take
for example, kale. Kale contains calcium and iron. But they also contain
something called phytates, which prevent the
absorption of calcium in iron, which is kind
of counter-intuitive. But when you cook the kale down,
it actually breaks down some of those phytates/anti-nutrients
and makes the calcium and iron more absorbable. So cooking things like
beans, and kale, and spinach, breaks down those
anti-nutrients and makes the minerals a little
bit more easy to absorb. And the other way to make
those minerals easier to absorb, with
calcium and iron, is to have those
foods with vitamin C. So if you’re taking a
calcium or eating a salad, making sure to have an
apple with it for vitamin C or some oranges on the
side to make it easier to absorb calcium and the iron. KAITLIN HENNESSY: Thank you. The next question asks, I
have tried going wheat-free and would like your opinion
on the health benefits or if it’s just a fad. ALICE MA: So a
little bit of both. Wheat-free is– definitely,
gluten-free for sure, not necessarily
just wheat-free– so gluten-free was definitely
a fad a couple of years ago. It’s starting to die
down a little bit now. But there are people who
do need to be gluten-free because they’re a celiac or
have some sort of intolerance. And some people find that
they don’t feel great when they’re eating
wheat, especially large amounts of wheat. But really for the
general population, if you aren’t feeling any
effects after eating wheat and you don’t have a
certain condition that makes wheat indigestible
to you, there’s really no additional
benefit to being wheat-free. KAITLIN HENNESSY: Thank you. Our next question
asks, is coconut milk’s full-fat dangerous because
it’s a saturated fat? ALICE MA: So the question was is
coconut milk dangerous because of the saturated fat? And that’s a very
hot topic right now in nutrition– whether or not
coconut oil and coconut milk, the saturated fat is the same
as saturated fat from meats. And really for the time being,
I would say use coconut oil in moderation because it
is still a saturated fat and we know for sure
that saturated fat is related to higher cholesterol. So in moderation, for
sure, with coconut oil. And then with coconut
milk, it does still have the saturated fat if
you use the canned coconut milk, which is usually the
one you use for cooking. And that contains the
fatty part of the coconut, which is the coconut cream. But if you’re using–
if you’re talking about coconut milk that’s in
the gallon size container that’s used for drinking, that coconut
milk is typically a lot lower in saturated fat than
the culinary coconut milk you would buy in a can. And you can also buy a light
version of coconut milk that isn’t have the full fat,
but has a lot saturated fat removed. KAITLIN HENNESSY: Thank you. Our next question– what do
you recommend if someone has GI issues that they experience
when eating beans or legumes? And would combining
dairy with lentils be a cause of discomfort
or anything like that? ALICE MA: Thanks, of
course, for the questions in the comment box. So with beans and legumes,
it is pretty common to have gas or bloating
after eating them. And one tip is,
really, if you’re new with plant-based eating,
is to go a little bit slower on those at first. So starting with about a half
a cup of beans and legumes is typically
tolerable for people who are on what’s called
a low-FODMAP diet, and building up your
tolerance from there. And then, the other
one would be when you’re cooking, if you’re
buying canned beans or legumes, being sure to rinse
of them really, really well because that gets
rid of a lot of the starch. And then, if you’re
cooking them from scratch, being sure to soak
them first, overnight. And then, in the
morning, rinsing them after you soak them. And then, cooking
them and then, again, rinsing them after
you cook them. I’ve also heard– I haven’t tried this
before and I haven’t really seen research–
but I’ve also heard adding bay leaf when you
cook the beans reduced some of the [INAUDIBLE]
the gas in there. Again, I haven’t tried
it, but I’ve heard that. And then, with the
second question– combining dairy with beans
and lentils be a cause– I wouldn’t say combining
it with the beans and lentils is the cause. I think it might be the dairy
itself being the cause of it. Because typically
as we get older, we’re not able to
digest lactose as well. And I know especially as
someone who’s Asian-American, we tend not to digest lactose
as well because we don’t grow up eating it as much as typical
people in America do. And so, that might be the
primary underlying issue as opposed to the beans
and lentils being the issue and combining those two. KAITLIN HENNESSY:
Thank you, Alice. And we have about
two more questions that we’ll wrap up because
I think that was 7:30 and we want to be respectful
of everyone’s time. But the next question
is, I don’t understand is there an alternative for
plant-based cheese recipe that you mentioned? ALICE MA: So with yeast,
the nutritional yeast isn’t an active form of
yeast, so I’m not sure if that would pose the same– I’m not really sure about
your specific allergy. But nutritional yeast,
because it’s inactive, may be a little bit
different from the yeast. It’s very different
because you can’t really use it to bake bread. So it’s a different
form of yeast and it may not cause those some
allergies as the bacteria– the yeast you’re talking
about when it comes to baking bread with yeast. But as an alternative,
if you don’t want to use any
nutritional yeast, there are non-dairy
cheeses you can buy that are coconut
oil based that don’t use nutritional yeast. Or simply replacing– just
leaving the nutritional yeast when you’re using those
same recipes and for color, adding turmeric. You won’t get quite the
same taste or flavor, but you can get the same color
from using turmeric to add that yellowish color. KAITLIN HENNESSY:
Our next question asks, are vegan butters
healthy in food substitutes, especially when we
were discussing baking? ALICE MA: It really
depends on the brand. Some of them are still
pretty high in saturated fat and they use palm oil, which
isn’t really sustainable. So they’re not the
healthiest substitutes, but they are sometimes a little
bit tolerable as far as not having dairy in them. And then, a little
bit lower in fat, but again, I would use
those in moderation. KAITLIN HENNESSY: Thank you. And I have a question to
ask, does eating plant-based cause increased bowel movement? ALICE MA: At first,
I would say, again, it’s depending on where you
are on a plant-based spectrum. It takes a while
to really build up that tolerance to all
the additional fiber. And so initially, you may
experience that discomfort. And with the gas as
well, initially, you’ll experience that, but
you can get yourself used to that and slowly
build your way up there. And so, yes, at first, for sure. But at least for me, I got
used to it over the years. KAITLIN HENNESSY:
And our last question asks, can you recommend a good
source of plant-based recipes that would appeal
to carnivores too? ALICE MA: So some of
the blogs I mentioned– MinimalistBaker.com– so she
has a very approachable style. So she calls
herself plant-based, but not necessarily vegan. And most of her
recipes are geared towards people who are new to
plant-based and just wanting something that looks great
and mimics the meat and dairy counterparts of those recipes. So that’s my favorite blog. There’s a number of
good blogs out there. If you look at– there’s a website
called FindingVegan.com, so Finding Vegan. And that is actually,
a compilation of different blogs that
submit their photos to the website for approval. And so there, you’ll find
a number of vegan recipes. And I like searching
through that because if I see a picture I like,
I can just click on it and it’ll take me to that blog. And usually, it’s a blog. Sometimes, it’s a blog that
I’ve never seen before. So it’s called FindingVegan.com. And let me see if I can actually
type that into the chat box. MinimalistBaker.com is one. And then, FindingVegan.com
would be another one. I’m trying to think if
there’s anything else. There’s a number
of them, for sure. YouTube channels are also good. I like a YouTube channel
called Mary’s Test Kitchen. I can’t really link up there
to the YouTube channel, but it’s called
Mary’s Test Kitchen. I’ll just type up the name here. If you go on YouTube and search
it, you can find it there. She has a lot of great recipes. Yeah, I think that’s
all I can think of off the top of my head.

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